These seminars are designed for healthcare practitioners and medical students who are interested
in learning more about Biological Medicine or have been following the BMN Seminar Series.
Both seminars will take place at Rachel’s Lakeside, 950 State Road, Dartmouth, MA.
SEPT. 30 - OCT. 1, 2010
BIOLOGICAL MEDICINE: Advanced Approaches to Difficult Diseases
LECTURE TOPICS INCLUDE: Dental and Toxicity, Detoxification, Complimentary Oncology, Nutritional Approaches to Cancer, Auto–Immune Therapies, Evaluation and Treatment Protocols for RA, MS, ADHD, Osteoporosis, Hormone
Replacement Therapy and much more.
LED BY: Thomas Rau, M.D., Paracelsus Clinic, Switzerland
Frank Pleus, M.D., D.D.S., O.M.F.S., Paracelsus Clinic, Switzerland
Guest Speaker: Kumara Sidhartha, M.D., Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA
DATE: Sept. 30 - Oct. 1, 2010 | 8 am - 6 pm
$625* Early Registration by Aug. 20, 2010
[ includes breakfast, lunch and dinner on Thursday evening only ]
$675* Full Registration after Aug. 20, 2010
[ includes breakfast, lunch and dinner on Thursday evening only ]
*Medical Student Discount: $50 off registration.
OCT. 2, 2010
PLEO-SANUM: Advanced Applications for Rheumatic and Chronic Inflammatory Conditions
LECTURE TOPICS INCLUDE: RA, Ulcerative Colitis, Osteoarthritis, Gout and other Hyperacidity Diseases, Tendinitis
and other Aspergillic Diseases, Asthma, Susceptibility to Infections, Chronic Prostatitis and Chronic Adnexitis.
LED BY: Thomas Rau, M.D., Paracelsus Clinic, Switzerland
DATE: Oct. 2, 2010 | 8 am - 3 pm
$199* Registration for Medical Students
[ includes breakfast and lunch ]
Registrants enjoy a 10% one-time order discount
– that could pay for the session!
For more information or to register, call the Marion Institute at 508.748.0816, visit www.biologicalmedicinenetwork.org or email us at email@example.com. Please pass this on to fellow healthcare practitioners & students.
*Cancellation Policy: There will be a $75 processing fee for cancellations received before Aug. 30, 2010.
After Aug. 30, 2010 there are no refunds for cancellations. Registration is non-transferable.
The Biological Medicine Network, a Program of the Marion Institute, was pleased to offer a free public lecture LYME DISEASE—Healing with Biological Medicine on Wednesday evening, April 21, 2010 presented by Dr. Thomas Rau. The lecture took place at Tabor Academy. The event was a huge success with over 200 people in attendance.
Dr. Rau explained his nutrition, therapeutic and detoxifying three-step program for Lyme disease, with which he has a high success rate. He also spoke about how this approach has had a long term success rate of 60-80% in Colitis and Arthritis patients, without antibiotics, cortisone or immune-suppressants.
Lyme disease has reached epidemic levels along the eastern coast from Connecticut to Maine. The large turnout was evidence that people are looking for alternative approaches to treating Lyme disease.
There was a book signing after the lecture with Dr. Rau. His book The Swiss Secret to Optimal Health has reached national acclaim and continues to help educate people about Biological Medicine. It is truly an inspirational book and has given people the tools to help themselves start turning their lives around through his nutritional and cleansing programs.
New England Health Advisory: Type 3 Diabetes and Electropollution
By Inger Pols
Research increasingly shows that energy and electricity can interfere with our body’s normal functioning. Cell phones, cordless phones, cell phone towers and WiFi can affect us all at a cellular level and those who are more sensitive may experience a significant disruption in cellular function and communication. I’m going to write more about electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and their effect on our bodies in coming weeks, including why microwaves are not allowed in Russia. But today I want to share some new information about how EMFs may affect blood sugar levels and lead to—or exacerbate—diabetes.
One leading researcher argues that there are three forms of diabetes, not two. Type 1, which is genetic, is generally diagnosed at a young age and requires insulin injections for effective management. Type 2, which used to be called adult onset, is brought on by diet and lifestyle choices and can be prevented or managed through diet changes and exercise. (It no longer takes an adult lifetime to damage cell signaling, as you learned in the sugar report. Today, more and more children are being diagnosed with this preventable form of diabetes.)Now Dr. Magda Havas of the University of Trent in Canada has shown that there is a third condition that is caused by the environment, not genes or diet. She calls it Type 3 diabetes and her research shows that “dirty” electricity and electromagnetic fields can alter blood sugar levels both in previously diagnosed Type 1 and 2 diabetics, as well as in people who have not been diagnosed with diabetes.
Her research, published in Electromagnetic Medicine and Biology, presents four case studies of patients affected by “dirty” energy. This is emerging research, so the numbers haven’t been quantified yet, but Dr. Havas estimates between five and 60 million diabetics are affected by this energy.So what exactly is “dirty” energy?
—Dirty Electricity and Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)
According to Dr. Havas, “dirty electricity” describes “electric power that has become corrupted by our use of modern appliances. Items such as CFL bulbs, cell phone transmission antennas, power supplies for portable computers, cell phone chargers, dimmer switches, variable speed fans and many other electronic devises that require a transformer to convert the voltage will “dirty” the electricity that enters your home. This form of dirty electro-magnetic fields (EMF) is invisible to the eye, but has a biological effect on the human body and has been associated with a wide variety of illnesses.”While Dr. Havas’ research is new, she is not the only one to write about EMFs. Many physicians and scientists, including Dr. Thomas Rau of the world-renowned Paracelsus Clinic in Switzerland, and others such as Dr. Weill, Dr. Mercola, Dr. David Carpenter and even the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been warning about these concerns since the 1980s.
Dr. Rau is convinced that “electromagnetic loads” can lead to cancer, ADD, migraines, insomnia, arrhythmia, Parkinson’s disease, back pain and difficulty concentrating. People who are super-sensitive to EMFs can get headaches, nausea, muscle aches, fatigue or skin irritations just from being around WiFi or cell phone towers.Dr. David Carpenter, Dean of the School of Public Health at State University of New York at Albany has attributed up to 30% of childhood cancers to EMFs. Martin Halper, the Director of Analysis and Support for the EPA says, “I have never seen a set of epidemiological studies that remotely approached the weight of evidence we are seeing with EMFs. Clearly there is something here.”
In 1989, the Department of Energy reported that, “It has now become generally accepted that there are, indeed, biological effects due to field exposure.” And Dr. Andrew Weill, natural health expert, has said, “Electromagnetic (EMF) pollution may be the most significant form of pollution human activity has produced in this century, all the more dangerous because it is an invisible, insensible ‘toxin.’ ”Scientists and the government have known about these dangers for decades now, but the proliferation of wireless technology since then makes the risks greater than ever before, especially those who are more sensitive.
So what exactly does “dirty” electricity do?
—The Effect of “Dirty” Electricity
Dr. Havas looked at the effect of dirty electricity on blood sugar levels in four different scenarios. In the first, the patient was a 54-year-old man who had not yet been diagnosed with diabetes, but was considered to be “pre-diabetic.” In this case, the man’s blood sugar levels were found to be normal when he was outside fishing and camping and he had no blood sugar concerns. But when he measured his blood sugar inside his house, especially after working on a computer, he experienced blood sugar spikes.
The man’s blood sugar and the level of “dirty” electricity in his home were measured in the morning for nine days. The higher the level of dirty electricity, the higher his recorded blood sugar levels. On one day, he forgot to measure his blood sugar first thing and instead measured it later while working at his computer. It was shown to be higher than normal. He stepped away from his computer and measured it again 10 minutes later, and it had dropped 20 mg/dL or milligrams per deciliter.The second case was a 57-year-old woman with Type 2 diabetes who uses exercise to control her blood sugar levels. In the study, she walked inside a mall (after hours when everything was shut down) for 20 minutes and her plasma glucose was shown to drop significantly after her exercise from above acceptable levels down to acceptable levels. When she used a treadmill inside her home for 20 minutes instead and conducted the same blood sugar measurements, her blood sugar was shown to increase after exercise!
In the third case, an 80-year-old woman with Type 1 diabetes who was taking insulin measured her blood sugar every morning for a week. Then she had energy filters installed in her house to remove the “dirty” electricity and she measured her blood sugar every morning for the subsequent week. The filters removed 98% of the “dirty” electricity in her home and her blood sugar dropped 33%; the amount of insulin she required to manage her condition was reduced by 75% as a result.The final case study involved a 12-year-old boy with Type 1 diabetes who was sent to the hospital with very high blood sugar levels. He was given increased insulin until his blood sugar began to decrease and he was allowed to go home. Then, filters were installed in his home and his blood sugar dropped significantly as did the amount of insulin he required (to about half his former level). His younger sister, who had been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at the age of three months, also saw her insulin levels significantly reduced after the filters were installed.
In another part of the study, Dr. Havas put patients on beds with cordless phones two feet away from their heads. The phone was plugged into the wall, and either turned on or off for each session, though neither the patient nor the doctor administering the test knew whether the phone was on or off.Patients who were sensitive to EMFs experienced significant increases in their heart rates when the phone was powered on, and their normal heart rates returned almost instantly once the phone was turned off again.
—How do You Know if You Have Type 3 Diabetes?
If you experience unexplained blood sugar spikes, you may want to look into whether you are sensitive to “dirty” energy. If your blood sugar levels change based on your environment (test levels when you are outside in nature and at the same time when you are inside your home) or you have difficulty regulating your blood sugar levels for reasons you cannot identify, it’s worth exploring this further. One simple and easy way to test is to measure your blood sugar before and after exercising on electronic exercise equipment. After exercise, your blood sugar levels should be reduced; if they increase, you are energy sensitive.While we are all vulnerable to “dirty” energy exposure, it is unknown how many of us are sensitive enough to experience such measurable disruptions. The case studies Dr. Havas presents are just a small sample, but knowing you are sensitive to “dirty” electricity may be critical for improving your health and wellness. Because many doctors remain unaware, you may need to be proactive in exploring the reasons behind your blood sugar variations and the appropriate actions you can take to help restore balance.
—How to Reduce Exposure to Electropollution
Even if you are not sensitive enough to “dirty” electricity to see a physiological manifestation like heart rate increases or blood sugar level spikes, we are all bombarded with electropollution on a daily basis and many experts agree that minimizing our exposure makes good health sense for us all.The first step you can take is to test your home. The website EMF Safety Store identifies and summarizes various meters you can use to measure EMFs and offers filters to mitigate “dirty” electricity. Filters will capture the electrical noise from things like televisions, computers and phones and filter it out of your house and back into the line or the ground.
Whether you test or not, try to reduce exposure to cell phones, cordless phones, WiFi, microwaves, electric blankets and heating pads. Keep wireless routers and cell phones away from your body and be sure your router is removed from any area where people sleep or spend a lot of time. (Sometimes even a few feet can make a difference, but the further away, the better. I keep mine in my office at the opposite end of the house from the bedrooms and family living area.)At night, turn off phones, your router or any other electricity emitting devices. And never walk around with a headset on your head. Headsets deliver a steady stream of radiation, even when you are not speaking: They serve as a tractor beam of sorts for EMFs. If you must use a headset, take it off when you are not speaking.
Spending more time outside and away from all our gadgets, appliances and technology is a great way to recharge, reconnect and to reduce our exposure to “dirty” energy. And while you are outside, you can get some vitamin D and increase your health benefits at the same time! To your health!
Inger Pols Editor of New England Health Advisory
The original article can be found at http://www.nehealthadvisory.com/2010/06/type-3-diabetes-and-electropollution
Case 2: Maggots - Nature's Nurses
reduce waste, promote health and generate 500,000 jobs within a decade
This article introduces "maggots" as one of the 100 innovations
that shape The Blue Economy, as part of a broad effort to
stimulate entrepreneurship, competitiveness and employment.
By Gunter Pauli
One estimate puts the amount of slaughterhouse waste around the world at 200 million
tons. The average weight of animal waste per European resident is approximately 150
kg per citizen per year putting the continentʼs share at 60 million tons. For each animal
we eat, approximately 50 percent ends up as waste. This has created a little known
billion dollar industry which converts carcasses, blood, brains and offal into recycled
meat, bone meal and animal fat.
As demand for animal feed increases to keep pace with humanityʼs growing appetite for
it, turning animal waste into animal feed has kept supply in balance. Demand for meat
and feed in developing countries is skyrocketing. India is turning into one of the worldʼs
largest livestock holdings requiring 37 million tons of animal feed annually. Local
abattoirs claim that 17 million tons could be supplied from their own waste. Grazing land
is scarce and overgrazing causes soil erosion. The supply of hay, corn and soy canʼt
keep up with demand, thus animal waste has become an option. What few realize is
that dairy cows and pigs which are natural herbivores are unwittingly turned into
carnivores. The scare around mad-cow disease forced many governments to prohibit
this practice and most animal waste is therefore simply incinerated at high temperature,
converting waste from cows to kilowatts.
Another piece of data to keep before us when considering the innovation described
below is that the cost of wound treatment for a leg ulcer is approximately $ 2,000 per
patient. However in the case of a diabetic suffering from a foot ulcer the cost is
estimated at $ 30,000. A gel treatment with antibiotics on average takes 72 days. This
increases the time a patient spends in a hospital bed. Unsuccessful treatment of ulcers
leads to amputation, requiring life long social and medical care exacerbating the
demand on government budgets which are already under considerable pressure.
Father Godfrey Nzamujo initiated in 1986 the Songhia Center in Porto Novo, the capital
city of Benin. The Nigeria-born priest established a food production center cascading
nutrients and energy following the Chinese traditional farming model known as
integrated biosystems (IBS). Over the years Father Nzamujo converted whatever is
considered waste from one process into a value added input for another. Waste plant
biomass is a substrate for mushrooms, waste water is converted into biogas, leftovers
from food processing is feed for animals and the slaughter house waste is used to farm
Flies create an unhealthy environment. Offal like any decomposing waste attracts flies.
Father Nzamujo turned this challenge into an opportunity, creating “a fly hotel” where all
offal is carefully spread over hundreds of small square open containers with nets
blocking birds out. The flies lay eggs and produce up to one ton of maggots each week.
The maggots, rich in protein, are harvested and served as feed for fish and quails. The
process generates low cost protein and concentrates all flies into one area while
eliminating a major nuisance for the farm.
In parallel Professor Stephen Britland built his career at Bradford University (UK) around
the study of the health benefits of maggots. The use of maggots for wound care has
been practiced by the Mayas and the Aboriginal tribes. Napoleonʼs physician observed
during his Egyptian exploit that soldiers whose wounds had become colonized with
maggots experienced lower morbidity than others. Professor Britland has demonstrated
that instead of applying live maggots, as proposed by the Welsh company Zoobiotics,
enzymes extracted from the maggotsʼ saliva could do the same job without causing the
Professor Britland went on to create with partners Advanced Gel Technologies,
combining innovations in gel research with the active ingredients from maggots. The
present hypothesis is that the maggot enzymes not only cleanse the wounds, but
produce an electro-magnetic environment that stimulates cell growth. Research
undertaken by Professor Nicky Cullum, a specialist in wound care, confirmed the
efficiency of maggot treatment in the British Medical Journal in March 2009. Maggot
treated wounds clear in 14 days, five time faster than those treated with antibiotics.
The First Cash Flow
Father Nzamujo reduced the cost for fish feed thanks to the massive production of
maggots. However, the greatest financial benefit is obtained from the quails which
produce eggs that are in high demand in Europe. The export of eggs from free range
and naturally fed quails generates substantial revenue. However, when exposed to the
production system of Father Nzamujo, Professor Britland quickly understood that the
cost of production of maggot enzymes in Benin is only a fraction of their production cost
in the UK. The extraction of enzymes is easy - simply submerge the maggots in salt
water and all active ingredients are excreted. The live maggots can then be fed to fish
and birds. While there are issues to be resolved around the sterilization of this
biologically active compound, the volume from Benin permits a broad market entry at
considerably lower costs.
Maggot nurses are of interest not only to the 800 medical centers in the US and UK that
offer such wound treatment since the Food and Drug Administrations in Europe and
America approved the procedure in 2005. The biggest opportunity is likely in Africa
itself. While we are well aware of the havoc generated by AIDS, malaria and iodine
deficiency, what few know is that millions of Africans are marginalized in society due to
ill-treated wounds. At the same time, millions of Africans are exposed to unhygienic
living conditions in and around abattoirs.
If all of the waste from abattoirs were used to produce maggots for wound care, fish and
bird feed, then the 3,000 recognized slaughterhouses could generate an additional
500,000 jobs, while manufacturing local treatments, reducing the cost of wound care,
and limiting the social marginalization caused by lack of health services.
author of the Blue Economy
The author takes full responsibility for the information in this article.
For further background on the 100 innovations, video clips and additional information
please connect to www.blueeconomy.de where you also have the opportunity to
register. The publication and distribution of this article, including translated versions is subject to
a written permission. Please write to <firstname.lastname@example.org>
saves energy, eliminates chemicals and generates 250,000 jobs within a decade
This article introduces the vortex as one of the 100 innovations
that shape The Blue Economy. This article is of part of a broad
effort to stimulate entrepreneurship, competitiveness and
By Gunter Pauli
The world market for water treatment and the production of potable water represents
one of the safest investments ever. The commodity of water is indispensable for society
and industry. The availability of clean water is increasingly under pressure as population
increases and consumption per capita rises incessantly. Water used to be free of
charge, a commons. The last few decades has turned water into a profitable business
with a secure cash flow and rising costs to the consumer.
The world market for water and waste water treatment surpassed the $200 billion mark
in 2009. China leads this market with an estimated annual growth of 17 percent.
Treating water sewage is valued at $40 billion with over 13,000 companies worldwide,
driven by long term service contracts. The model of water treatment so far has involved
sedimentation and oxidation, which means settling solids out and pumping air in, and a
subsequent chemical treatment. The annual volume of chemicals used to treat water in the
US exceeds 10 million tons. As world demand for water increases, so does demand for
The consumption of bottled water increased by an average of 12 percent per year each
year over the past decade with an estimated $22 billion in sales. One of the fastest
growing niches in this quest to expand drinking water supply is the conversion of salt
and grey water into drinking water through reverse osmosis. The capital expenditure for
this technology exceeds $2.2 billion annually but is expected to grow another 50% over
the next four years. Aguas de Barcelona (Spain), part of the GDF Suez Group (France),
is planning the biggest installation of this type, investing over $1 billion, thus liberating
Barcelona from a chronic water shortage.
It is within the context of the world market for water that we have to assess the arrival of
an extraordinary simple innovation: the vortex. The vortex has the capacity to
dramatically increase efficiency in water treatment, cutting costs while generating local
jobs. This natural phenomenon could one day replace chemicals and membranes, and
upset the existing cash flows of traditional suppliers that have looked safe. The
technology platform of the vortex is inspired by the observation that dirty water cleanses
itself as a river moves downstream. The continuous swirling movement forces air in and
out of the water, discouraging and stimulating beneficial micro-organisms.
Two Swedish inventors, the development engineer Curt Hallberg and his colleague
Morten Oveson, translated their observations into a mathematical model and then
created a simple device that emulates the movement of water in a vortex with
predictable results. They continued their venture to create Watreco AB based in Malmö.
Watreco AB was elected the Swedish GreenTech company of the year in 2009. This
company is more than green - it changes the business model of water.
The power of the vortex rests in the predictability of the laws of physics, where air
particles are dragged to the center, from where air is sucked out. The energy source for
this process may be simply gravity, which is guaranteed to power the device 24 hours
per day! Gone are chemicals, gone are membranes, and energy consumption is minute.
The First Cash Flow
The inventors realized the broad spectrum of applications for their vortex device and
searched for the first obvious market entry close to home, which was soon identified as
ice making. The hand-made vortex generator achieved beneficial results: energy
savings and crystal clear ice. Water includes air, dissolved in micron-size bubbles. The
vortex removes this air, and since air acts as an insulator, the resulting air-free water
freezes faster. Air-free ice is crystal clear and cracks much less readily. When applied to
ice hockey rinks, advertising signs beneath the ice remain visible all season, thus
increasing publicity revenues. Since there is no air in the ice, aerobic bacteria that
typically grow in ice like E.coli and Salmonella cannot survive. Most of the prominent
Scandinavian ice rinks have since adopted the technology, resulting in a financial
payback within months, not years.
The second niche market that has generated cash flow for Watreco AB is the golf
course. A golf course may need up to one million gallons of water a day. To save water,
surfactants are added to the water so that it penetrates faster into the greens and less
evaporates. If the water has been pre-treated by the vortex machine, no chemicals are
needed, reducing water requirement by 20 to 30 percent. This is a case where the
vortex actually makes chemicals redundant. A third niche market is the removal of algae
from stable water bodies including swimming pools, which are typically treated with
chemicals like chlorine.
While hockey rinks and golf courses are niche markets, the experience gained in these
sectors prepared Curt Hallberg and his team for growth markets including industrial
water treatment and desalination. The trial units of the vortex machine in the Canary
Islands demonstrated that its treatment of salt water again permits the elimination of air,
which subsequently eliminates the problem of biofilms. Biofilms grow on membranes,
reducing the membraneʼs efficiency. This forces the closure of the desalination plantʼs
reverse osmosis installation every fortnight to chemically remove biofilms. This
increases maintenance costs (via an additional chemical requirement) and reduces the
plantʼs efficiency (since shutdown periods require back up) as well as requiring further
capital for replacement membranes (since the life of a membrane is reduced). If there is
no air in the water, then the aerobic bacteria are excluded. If a vortex but no chemical is
used, then the life expectancy of the membrane increases. In fact the energy cost of
one cubic meter of drinking water could drop from 2.4 to 1.0 kiloWatt per hour.
These are only a few of the applications of the vortex that have been realized, but it is
expected that more will be revealed soon. However what we know today confirms that
the vortex machine results in reduced running costs, energy saved, chemicals
eliminated and existing investments generating higher return. The challenge for
mainstream industries is that the successful integration of the vortex into existing
facilities requires a new core competence: fluid dynamics. It will now be up to General
Electric, Siemens and Nitto Denko to take us out of the box. In the mean time,
entrepreneurs around the world can create a new competitive model that generates jobs
locally anywhere in the world.
author of the Blue Economy
All information is the sole responsibility of the author.
For further background on the 100 cases
The publication and distribution of this article, including translated versions is subject to
a written permission. Please write to <email@example.com>
The Blue Economy
All rights reserved. © 2010, Pauli
We will begin interviews on Monday, June 21 for 5 Community Mobilization Leader positions. We are on a tight timeline and hoping to get our team in place by the end of June so if you are interested in this work, please submit an application right away. Please click here to download the application. It can be submitted by email to firstname.lastname@example.org or dropped off/mailed to 459 Kempton St. New Bedford, MA 02740.
Please contact Kalia with questions: 508-951-4026, email@example.com.
Community Mobilization Leaders: Green Jobs, Green Economy Initiative is working in collaboration with a number of New Bedford organizations to build a team of local Community Mobilization Leaders who can help us spread the word about energy efficiency and build an inclusive green economy. The project will use organizing tactics – such as door to door outreach, creative marketing and community events – to raise awareness about energy efficiency and sustainability. This team will play a critical role in creating jobs, saving people money and reducing our impact on the planet. Although there has been a lot of focus on creating “Green Jobs” – weatherization workers, solar panel installers, etc. – the economic recession has meant that not as many jobs are being created as people expected. As a community, we can create these jobs! But we need your help…
Energy Efficiency 101: Energy use in buildings is responsible for 40% of our carbon emissions – more than cars. The high cost of energy also puts a financial burden on families, with many households spending as much as 30% of their incomes to cover the cost of heating and electric bills. If we could reduce the amount of energy we use in buildings, we would be able to help people and the planet. An added bonus is that the process of making homes energy efficient – insulation, weatherization, etc. – creates jobs. Therefore, an increase in energy efficiency saves people money, helps the planet, and creates jobs.
SCOPE OF WORK
- Door-to-door canvassing, phone banking, and other outreach efforts
- Organizing, running and speaking at community events
- Reaching out to and communicating with media
- Building partnerships and communicating with community networks & organizations
- Tracking and managing data collected
- Knowledge of and commitment to the New Bedford community
- Strong communication skills
- Ability to work well in a small group environment
- Ability to be innovative and flexible
- Desire to learn new things and develop new skills
- Organizing and/or teaching experience preferred but not required
This is an innovative pilot program that is still in the early phases. The start and end dates are still to be determined. We anticipate that the program will begin before the end of June and conclude in October but may go as late as December. If the pilot is successful, our hope is to extend the program into the coming years.
The work will be part time, mostly evenings and weekends, and will offer competitive wages. Interviews will begin June 21st.
- 1 of 3